To expand information on youth participation practices in São Paulo, it was held, in March 2014, an online survey with a questionnaire composed of the following questions:
4. Indicate the district where you live:
5. Indicate the neighbourhood where you live, or nearby:
6. Do you take part in an organization / collective?
7. If you answered yes to the question above, what is the name of your organization / collective?
8. What is your occupation? 9. What is your education?
10. Do you participate in informal spaces in São Paulo? (Eg.: groups, forums, movements, neighborhood meetings, etc.)
11. If you answered yes in the question above, indicate which:
12. What roles do you exercise these spaces? 13. Do you participate in formal spaces in São Paulo? (Eg.: advice, conferences, working groups, forums, public consultations, audências, dialogues, etc.)
14. If you answered yes in the question above, indicate which:
15. What roles you exercise these spaces?
16. Do you believe that the existing formal spaces for participation in São Paulo are friendly and promote youth participation?
17. Please indicate your main area of action (please choose three priority options):
18. Do you believe that your action is related to the governance of the earth?
19. What do you understand by right / access to land?
20. For you, what is good governance of the land?
21. What is the role of the youth in the land of governance in São Paulo?
This survey was answered by 231 young people and brought ideas about ways of participation in land governance, but we must emphasize that it cannot be considered representative in statistical terms. Below is the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results.
70% of people who answered the survey are female.
70% have between 18 and 29 years old.
Residents of the West and South Zones were the ones who participated the most in the survey, respectively 35% and 29% of those who answered the questionnaire.
57% are not part of a formal organization or collective.
29% of young people are working in a private company or are students (25%). However, almost 30% said they had their own business or worked for themselves.
Almost 60% of the sample have complete higher education.
Although well-balanced, most of the sample, 46%, indicated that they do not participate in informal spaces for participation in São Paulo.
However, when asking for formal spaces, this number increases considerably and goes to 68%.
Friendly formal spaces that promote youth engagement
For 60%, formal spaces are not friendly and do not promote youth participation in decision-making processes.
Areas of social participation
The main areas of activity of young people who answered the survey are Culture and Education, followed by Political Participation and Urban Development, with moderate expression of Environment and Mobility.
Belief in connectivity of their activities with land governance
57% of young people believe that their activities are related to land governance.
Education and culture are more structural issues in the network formed by the answers of the survey, and they connect two big clusters.
However, it is also possible to notice other indications and trends of groupings:
1- A female group of 26-30 years, present in the West Zone, connected to mobility, culture and urban development;
2- A male group, present in the South Zone, connected to environment, political participation, and citizenship;
3- A mostly male group, Downtown, with older people (31-35, 41-65) concentrating the theme of citizenship.
When people and areas are related it is seen that housing, reading and sport are very peripheral and unimportant. It is also noted a clear link between citizenship, urban development and mobility. And, on the other hand, a link between education, environment and culture, with political participation dialoguing with these two big clusters.
In relation to age, people 26 to 30 are more connected with issues of urban development and mobility.
In relation to gender and areas of expertise, we realize that these are attributes that reorganize the network if placed related to other attributes (area, age).
When relating areas of activity and city zones, the South Zone is the one that shows greater concern for the environment. The West shows to be very connected with culture and mobility and the Downtown with citizenship and political participation.
This graph relates occupation, informal spaces, and formal spaces.
When the answers are displayed in a network, you can see that most people say work informally. This point is directly related to the fact that there is a lot of informal initiatives that are not connected. Thus, the formal and informal spaces are concentrated at the network edge, which shows little coordination between these initiatives in the city. This could indicate an opportunity for action.
There is no consensus in the interpretation of people about what are formal and informal spaces. Many collectives and organizations responded to the survey as formal spaces. However there is the possibility they may have be indicated this option because of the existence of some degree of organization and not because they were actually a formal space of participation according to the law. Some organizations considered to be informal spaces cause a little more convergence between people.
The relationship between ages and roles fulfilled in both formal and informal spaces, shows that:
- The role of “supporter” in informal initiatives structures the whole network;
- Young people aged 16-25 years places themselves more as observers;
- Young people with older ages are closer to formal spaces and also playing a role of organizers in informal spaces.
The graph below links all the attributes, ie, people, gender, age, occupation, region, education, formal spaces, informal spaces and roles fulfilled these spaces.
We can observe that:
- Students and the private sector are diametrically opposed.
- Sport and reading are more isolated issues in relation to occupations and the rest of the network;
- Housing is closer to private enterprise.
The goal of the semantic analysis is to understand the interrelationship between words within a specific context. The semantic analysis transforms blocks of text in word graphs, the position according to relevance and aggregating ability of words, that is, the most central words are identified. These words are vectors formulation of inferences that can be made.
The preview we use helps us understand the context of the fragment in which these words are connected and so we seek the production of meaning. The reading of this analysis helps us understand the priorities and aspirations of young people in the context of governance and participation in the city of São Paulo.
Below, analysis was divided according to the questions in the survey.
What do you understand by right / access to land?
Highlighted words: Space, Housing, Rights, Conditions.
What do you understand by right/access to land?
Main ideas from the answers:
- The use of public spaces as an social interaction and occupancy spaces is highlighted;
- Free access, mobility, power back and forth is expressed with force: fewer restrictions;
- Use the earth and the space to grow food, life and mobility stand out.
For you what is good land governance?
Highlighted words: Governance, Democratic, Commons, Distribution.
Main ideas from the answers:
- Governance is democratic and decentralized;
- Democratic governance is the means of management of public space;
- Governance should promote the distribution of resources equitably;
- Governance should promote equality promotion mechanisms.
What is the role of the youth in land governance in the city of São Paulo?
Highlighted words: Commons, Public Administration, New Ways and Solutions, Participate and Participation.
NEW FORMS AND SOLUTIONS
TO PARTICIPATE AND PARTICIPATION
Main ideas from the answers:
- Youth see that their role is active, especially in the decisions in the public space;
- The new forms and solutions where the young man sees through the use of technology, dialogue with other generations;
- Young people want to be recognized as an actor and have a performance of own space.